Low-and medium-pressure mercury UVGI lamps emit UV energy that poses a hazard to the cornea and skin. Some UVGI LED devices emit near 270 nm, which poses a hazard to the cornea and skin. “Far UV-C” lamps that emit around 222 nm can pose a hazard to the cornea, and recent studies have been inconsistent regarding whether far UV-C lamps pose a significant skin hazard.[22, 23] Differences may be the result of different glass envelopes allowing some longer-wavelength radiant-energy transmission.
Pulsed xenon arc UVGI lamps emit UV and visible radiant energy that poses a hazard to the retina, cornea, and skin. Some pulsed xenon arc lamps are filtered so that only the UV energy for disinfection is emitted. Xenon arc lamps can also pose additional safety hazards if they are not maintained properly. These GUV lamps are generally used only in industry, to sterilize food and pharmaceutical containers, for example, but also have been used in GUV robots for hospital room disinfection. Maintenance and service should only be performed by authorized persons.
 Buonanno M, Ponnaiya B, Welch D, Stanislauskas M, Randers-Pehrson G, Smilenov L, Lowy FD, Owens DM, Brenner DJ. Radiation Res. Germicidal efficacy and mammalian skin safety of 222 nm light. 2017;187:493-501.
 Woods JA, Evans A, Forbes PD, Coates PJ, Gardner J, Valentine RM, Ibbotson SH, Ferguson J, Fricker C, Moseley H. The effect of 222-nm phototesting on healthy volunteer skin: A pilot study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2015;31:159-66.